RISK FACTORS AND CO-MORBIDITIES IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS VISITING HAYATABAD MEDICAL COMPLEX, PESHAWAR, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
Keywords:Comorbidity, Complications, Risk Factors, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Introduction: Various risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and comorbid conditions have been identified in epidemiological and clinical studies. The present study was carried out to find out various risk factors and comorbidities in T2DM patients during their management.
Materials & Methods: This was a descriptive study, between conducted during September to December, 2015 on patients who presented with T2DM to Endocrinology Outpatient Department and Ward of Hayatabad Medical Complex (HMC), Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Data were collected on objectively designed Performa based on convenience sampling. Assessment of risk factors and co-morbidities was done clinically by Endocrinologists and Performa filled under their supervision. BMI was calculated using formula kg/m2; Obesity was defined as BMI 30. Data were analyzed for descriptive statistics by using SPSS version 16.
Results: A total of 236 type 2 diabetic subjects from both sexes were included. Mean age of subjects was 55±7.58 years; 77(32.63%) were male and 159(67.37%) were female. The most common mode of treatment in subjects was oral hypoglycemic medication (42%). In terms of risk factors, 50(21.19%) were obese, 113(47.89%) had family history of DM, 96(40.68%) were either active smokers or had history of chronic smoking and 97(41.10%) were not active physically. Among co-morbidities, 177(75%) were hypertensive, 96(40.68%) were having osteoporosis, 74(31.35%) were suffering from different types of renal diseases and 70(29.66%) had eye related issues. Also, 64(27.11%) and 33(13.98%) patients had concomitant coronary artery disease and heart failure respectively; 17(7.2%) patients had positive history of previous stroke and only 21(8.9%) subjects had diabetic foot.
Conclusion: Despite following treatment protocols, the frequencies of risk factors, complications, and comorbidities are quite high in type 2 diabetics.